About IDGR.igscr-idgr and Its Registration Process
IDGR.igscr-idgr is a true Conservation Registry. What this means is that we don’t close our herdboods like most other registries do. Most registries close the Purebred herdbook to ‘set type’ for the breed. What it actually means to close a herdbook is that no matter if a legitmate Purebred for that breed is discovered, it would still never be allowed to enter into the Purebred herdbook. That animal would be ‘held back’ by most registries and never be allowed to be classified into the herdbook where it belongs.
Definition of a Closed Herdbook: Purebred herdbook is closed to new animals who are truly Purebreds
IDGR has long been a Conservation registry, which is part of why ‘the world’ does not uderstand our processes. For over 40 years IDGR has ‘thought out of the box’ in order to protect the genetic diversity of its breeds. We work with breeders and animals specifically. Since IGSCR, LLC took over the registry, IDGR has become increasingly more of a Conservation Registry.
Much of the information on this page is discussing the IDGR.igscr-idgr approach and utilizing information from the book Managing Breeds for a Secure Future.
Our herdbooks and certificates are developed by working directly with breeders; new, current and old. Our herdbooks were also created through working with geneticists and the Livestock Conservancy. They were also created from need expressed by the current breeder population and community as a whole, who specifically came to IDGR.igscr-idgr to address problems and needs. We are here for everyone.
Benefits of a Closed Herdbook
- Isolation of animals into the Purebred herdbook
- Isolation creates to create predictable and repeatable traits in the animals
- Can be useful when a new breed is created
Problems Caused by a Closed Herdbook system
- Restrictive and loss of vitality with each generation
- Genetic bottleneck due to lack of diverse breeding pool
- Destruction of breeds due to have enough various lineages available for breeding. Essentially they all become one big ‘SAME LINEAGE’
- Genetic defects start cropping up
- Loss of hybrid vigor
- Animals who truly are gentically purebred are NOT allowed into the herdbook
- There are breeds whose breeders have crossbreed with other breeds for genetic diversity and to increase production and SHOW WINS. They register these crossbreds as Purebreds immediately (1st cross) upon crossing and therey lose the genetic true breed. We are seeing that this has happened, as we have worked with a geneticist to create Breed Analysis for various dairy goat breeds.
Essentially often times a closed herdbook system is a recipe for destruction of breeds, in the IDGR.igscr-idgr viewpoint.
IDGR.igscr-idgr Open Herdbook Approach
Open Herdbook Definition: New lineage purebred animals are allowed into the Purebred and Fullblood Herdbook
IDGR has long had an Open Herdbook approach to its registrations. The purpose of the Open herdbook is to allow for inclusion of newly found goats who are in fact Purebred and fullblood. The other purpose is to keep genetic diversity and prevent a genetic bottleneck.
Many of our San Clemente Island goats are truly Purebred and not yet registered. Also others have been handled in Wild Herd method (aka like a commercial cow herd) where mulitple bucks and does are run together. Sometimes this is a huge number of animals who are like wild animals. Others are more controlled with a few does and bucks. With the San Clemente Island goat, this was done in some herds, to allow them to be more like they were on the Island. This is completely fine. SCIGBA has also apparently found a new herd that was obtained from the Navy export from the San Clemente Island. This is going to happen and is very exciting. We are going to find new herds who were exported pre-Fund For Animals era, which is around the 1973 time frame. We are also going to find San Clemente Island goats who were exported even earlier than that.
The IDGR inc began registering the San Clemente in the 1980 era. IDGR.igscr-idgr has found accounts in its histories where it actually worked directly with the seemingly original association for the breed; San Clemente Island Goat Club. We worked with them on breed standards and with the Club’s breeders. So for over 40 years, IDGR inc, IDGR-IFBR and IDGR.igscr-idgr have worked hand in hand with breeders all over the United States and Canada to create a diverse and large database of Purebred San Clemente Island goats.
The book Managing Breeds for a Secure Future definitely recommends keeping the Herdbook open for landrace breeds to remain viable and lasting for generations.
Open Herdbook method is not Without Its Trials
- Some goat breeds who are truly Fullblood and Purebred have its breed description go out of favor. We have seen this with some goat breeds. Many of the animals who are the TRUE breed have been lost to registration, because the new and improved version of that breed is desired
- Open herdbooks require a very open-minded, clear-headed and ‘think out of the box’ approach to breeding and registering
- DNA typing, DNA Parentage is often required
- Knowledge that often individuals (of any breed) who have been registered for years may actually NOT be from that breed they are registered into. DNA and visual inspection is key. Often heights and size are necessary. In the case of San Cemente Island, even horn spread and type are vital.
- Many breeders do not understand, desire, or have funds for DNA. However, they need to understand that in an Open herdbook situation, DNA is vital. Almost two years ago now, IDGR.IGSCR-idgr created the San Clemente Island DNA project. We have entire herds who are now fully DNA tested for several generations. More are following suit. We, with the huge help of breeders, the lab and IGSCR knowledgeable DNA specialists are uncovering parental issues. We are also finding lost ancestors and relatives. Recently IDGR began working with The San Clemente Island Goat International and San Clemente Island Goat Foundation (2nd association for the breed) to further develop this DNA project and other projects. We are also working directly with the Canadian San Clemente Island goat breeders facebook group to discover the Parentage of an old Canadian herd who has been run for years as a Wild Herd. Great success is happening with this herd.
- Individual San Clemente Island are found with no knowledge of owner or assumed INCORRECT owners. So what do you do with those goats? These individual goats are in fact still Purebreds genetically.
- Theft is running rampant these days in many species. Folks stealing animals from yards, transporters trailers, etc. How do we handle these situations and still allow Purebreds to be purebreds. Yet protect the property of individuals? This is no small task.
- Lack of understanding that Official Registration is key and vital to the preservation of any breed. This is the same for the San Clemente Island goat. Non-official pedigrees are also important. However, Official Registrations and Official Pedigrees hold a special set of standards (legal through the USDA and ownership laws, and also a strong Code of Ethics). Official Registrations and Pedigrees are created from the Registry’s own contracts with breeders and owners through its application process. Folks often assume that Official Registries just concoct their own set of standards at their whim. Nothing could be further from the truth. In fact Official Regisries and Registrations are bound by a very strict Code of Ethics, as well as following the law. We are also bound by truth and fact. It is the misunderstanding that also moves many breeders to choose not to register their animals and thereby many purebred animals are lost.
- Lack of education. IDGR.igscr-idgr is all about education, openness and transparency
- The idea that, “Free pedigree services” are all that is necessary. That is in fact not the case. Though free services are fine, it is imperative to recognize that with the Official Registration comes much cost. The registry owners complete huge research and have many costs of production. Official Registries, staff and registrars must devote much time to its VITAL service.
How IDGR.igscr-idgr handles the Open Herdbook Approach
- Development of special herdbooks that allow all the San Clemente Island to be admitted into its herdbooks, to ensure the breed remains vital and is not lost
- DNA testing at its finest
- Creation of new DNA tests and working directly with geneticists
- Following the law to protect its members’ records and and help owners gain a knowledge of how to protect ownership of their animals
- Following Official Registry Code of Ethics
- Working hand in hand with San Clemente Island Goat International and San Clemente Island Goat Foundation to work with breeders and develop strategies for improving recordation of the breed
- Creation of Artificial Insemination and Embryo Collections Registration process through working directly with one of SCIGBA Board of Directors member, IGSCR Board of Advisors and researching how other registries handle this process. This process was created by IDGR.igscr-idgr in order to protect the Purebred Registry herdbook, protect the ownership of the semen and embryo (which is owned by the legal animal owner), and at the same time allow everyone to have a strong system in place for this genetic resource. One has to be super careful, as no matter who pays for the collection, the ownership of the semen or embryo is in fact the legal owner of the animal at the time of collection. The only change to that is if the animal owner relinquishes his right of ownership. Everyone’s rights must be considered. Much thought was taken into this program creation, by all. Thanks to all who worked on this project and continue to.